Hypertension During Pregnancy Increases Heart Disease Risk
To investigate the relationship between a hypertensive pregnancy and the onset of CVD, researchers at the Brigham followed 60,739 mothers for incident CVD after their first birth using data from the Nurses’ Health Study II.
In doing so, they discovered that
women with HDP had a 63 percent higher rate of CVD events
compared to women who had normal blood pressure during pregnancy.
The increased risk of CVD was not explained by shared risk factors, including pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking, and parental history of CVD.
The researchers also found that the majority of the increased risk (64 percent) was jointly accounted for by the subsequent development of chronic hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, and/or weight gain after the first birth.
These established CVD risk factors accounted for an even higher proportion of the CVD risk among women with gestational hypertension (84 percent) than among those with preeclampsia (57 percent).
Researchers also found that the
overall relationship between HDP and CVD appeared to be driven by underlying relationships between preeclampsia and coronary heart disease, and between gestational hypertension and stroke.
“Women with a history of gestational hypertension or preeclampsia should be informed that they are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease events. Screening and prevention efforts in those with a history of gestational hypertension or preeclampsia should target the established cardiovascular disease risk factors of chronic hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and overweight/obesity,” said study author Jennifer J. Stuart, ScD, of the Division of Women’s Health.
“We are eager to continue investigating strategies to reduce long-term cardiovascular risk following hypertensive pregnancy and to empower and equip these patients to improve their cardiovascular health in the years and decades after delivery.”